Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine | Simcenter (2022)

Define your Roadmap with Simcenter Amesim

Learn how to apply Simcenter Amesim to define your roadmap with hydrogen-powered vehicles and hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines in particular.

Hydrogen is a promising fuel candidate for vehicles, to prevent CO2 emissions and hence reduce global warming. There are many questions and debates around its production and delivery. Indeed, they can have a dramatic impact on the global well-to-wheel benefit of hydrogen-powered vehicles. However, the usage of hydrogen in fuel cell and internal combustion engines could help meet the upcoming regulations, requiring major cuts in CO2 emissions.

The fuel cell applied in vehicles is largely studied and demonstrated with practical application in many transport sectors including automotive. The engineering of such fuel cell powertrains requires some CAE capabilities offered by system simulation tools such as Simcenter Amesim.

Another option is to burn the hydrogen in an internal combustion engine as one used to do for diesel or gasoline. Of-course there are H2-specific challenges related to the nature of hydrogen and its usage in an ICE. However, H2 engines can be an efficient technical solution towards a reduction of fleet CO2 emissions. It offers several advantages compared to an electric vehicle in terms of weight, cost, range and charging time. Additionally, it involves lower costs and higher versatility than Fuel-cell powertrains (no sensitive to H2 quality, ambient conditions, and availability [dual fuel]).

Once again, the virtual assessment of such a technology requires some modeling and simulation capabilities. This article exposes how Simcenter Amesim can support the development and evaluation of hydrogen-fueled vehicles.

The H2-fueled internal combustion engine

The application of hydrogen in ICE presents some clear advantages mitigated by some technical challenges:

(Video) Toyota's Developing A Hydrogen Combustion Engine!

  • Avoid abnormal combustions (knocking, pre-ignition, back-firing)
    • Define NOx aftertreatment system
    • Adapt air charging systems
    • Define storage System
    • Implement dedicated safety concept
    • Insure durability

Hydrogen storage and delivery

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine | Simcenter (1)

The hydrogen storage and delivery through the injection system and injectors is specific. H2 is indeed stored as gas in high-pressure tanks (300-700bar) and the injectors must comply with some H2-specific requirements (avoid injector nozzle backflows for instance). This system can be modeled using system simulation and the capabilities demonstrated for gas and liquid injection in Simcenter Amesim can serve the development of H2 application-specific components and systems.

Hydrogen combustion

The combustion process of hydrogen is significantly different from gasoline/diesel. This is mainly due to the nature and properties of H2. It has a low density and heating value, and high diffusivity and wide inflammability limits. Some aspects like the high laminar flame speeds are in favor of high efficiencies (and specific powers) whereas other characteristics lead to some challenges related to possible abnormal combustion (knocking sensitivity) and generation of pollutants (NOx, soot).

Simcenter Amesim provides a large scale of model for engine simulation, from crank-angle based approaches to simpler mean value engine and map-based approach. H2 applications can also benefit from this offer built around the phenomenological spark-ignition combustion model CFM1D(1), developed by IFP Energies Nouvelles.

Indeed, the CFM1D is fully capable of simulating hydrogen combustion with adapted modeling approaches to take into account the higher laminar flame speeds and the impact of species diffusion (modelled as an update of the formulation for the flame wrinkling). The model is hence able to deal with a large variety of operating conditions and variations in speed, load, equivalence ratio…

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine | Simcenter (2)

S. Richard et al., OGST – Rev. IFP, Vol. 64, No.3, pp. 223-242, 2009

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine | Simcenter (3)

Adaptation of the air path

The design of the air path in hydrogen powered ICE is mainly linked to the type of injection (direct or port fuel) and the richness under which the engine operates (most of the time “lean”). The air charging and “boost” requirements could be significantly higher than for other spark-ignited applications. However, the methodologies and tools applied for the development of SI and CI engine air paths remain applicable. Simcenter Amesim offers the possibility to evaluate electrically assisted turbocharging systems to ensure a high level of boost combined with excellent transient responses.

(Video) Everything wrong with hydrogen fuel for internal combustion engines | Auto Expert John Cadogan

Menegazzi, P., Wu, Y. & Thomas, V. Design of an electric supercharger for downsized engines. MTZ Worldwide 74, 36–41 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s38313-013-0113-5

H2 ICE emissions and after-treatment

The combustion of hydrogen does not produce, by nature, CO2 emissions which is a key benefit. Yet, H2-fueled engines are not pollutant-free. Indeed, low amounts of NOx can be formed in certain conditions and partly mitigated by lean combustion. However, with the more and more stringent regulations, the residual NOx must be processed in dedicated conversion systems at the exhaust. The Selective Catalytic Reduction seems the most appropriate approach for de-NOx in Hydrogen ICE. The co-called H2 SCR also presents some potential in strongly oxidizing conditions found at the exhaust of H2 lean combustion engines. NH3 SCR (with Adblue) is more practical option in the short term (as it is for Diesel or lean gasoline combustion).

Some soot can also be formed during H2 combustion mainly due to the tight interactions between the flame and walls. The oil deposits on the liner and crevices can thus be burned producing particulate matter.

The modeling approaches and methodologies developed to simulate ATS(After Treatment System) in Simcenter Amesim, remain fully valid for H2 applications. Based on a physical approach, the monolith and filter models offer best-in-class simulation times. This allows their integration in broader powertrain models linked to the control strategies either off-line (Model or Software in the Loop) or on-line in real time (Hardware in the Loop).

A flexible modeling approach of the kinetic scheme permits to easily adapt generic monolith models to H2 specific reactions and catalysis. They can be handled with an on-the-shelves tool which supports the after-treatment system model set-up and validation.

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine | Simcenter (4)

System integration

Analysis at the vehicle level

Beyond modeling capabilities for a given component or sub-system, system simulation offers the most appropriate approach to serve analysis at the vehicle level. Simcenter Amesim for instance supports the big picture and permits you to assess vehicle attributes including H2 consumption and vehicle range, performance or drivability.

(Video) The V8 Engine that Runs on HYDROGEN

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine | Simcenter (5)


Concept phase analysis

Basically, the H2 internal combustion engine can be the core component of a “conventional” powertrain. It could also be combined with an electric motor in an hybrid configuration. Of-course, this option increases the weight of the vehicle as well as its complexity and costs. However, the Hydrogen-fueled ICE is not a Zero Emission Vehicle and might be combined with an electric motor to enter into cities where ICEs are banned. This kind of high level analysis can be conducted efficiently within the Hybrid Optimization Tool in Simcenter Amesim. No need to get a comprehensive set of data to start the analysis. Simple functional characteristics are sufficient to run concept studies and see the potential – in terms of fuel consumption / range of an electrified H2 powertrain. Typically, comparison between H2 ICE and FCV can be conducted in such a tool, offering all required versatility for Proof-Of-Concept studies.

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine | Simcenter (6)

Comprehensive models for vehicle development and evaluation

To continue the investigations at a lower level, Simcenter Amesim allows you to combine sub-systems physical model, with the appropriate modeling complexity according to the use cases, the controls and mission profile/driver models able to support the assessment of attributes over various scenarios.

Read this blog post to learn more on driver models for real driving cycles.

Apply the “right”modeling level

For instance, the high-fidelity engine model used for a detailed analysis of the in-cylinder process and Hydrogen combustion/pollutant formation, can be beneficially reduced to a lower order model. It could be better adapted to quick analysis of large scale scenarios (ex: Real Driving Emissions for cars, long routes for HD trucks) or complex system cross-coupling assessments.

A practical illustration of the concept is offered for the simulation of the internal combustion engine. Indeed, a scale of model is available for the engine – as for all the vehicle subsystems. Once again, this reduction toward simpler modeling approaches presents some better computation performances while preserving some component functional and behavioral attributes.

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine | Simcenter (7)

When studying the details of the impact of combustion control strategies on heat release and NOx emissions, a crank-angle based approach is fully required. Having the simulation of in-cylinder pressure and resulting instantaneous torque production is also a strong requirement for drivability or NVH studies at the powertrain level.

(Video) How do Hydrogen-Powered Cars Work? Using [Fuel Cells & IC Engines]

On the other hand, when focusing on air charging systems and their controls, a Mean Value Engine Model is definitely sufficient as it links a physical model of the air path system and a surrogate approach describing the in-cylinder process efficiency. Basically, the MVEM is able to capture turbo lags and manifold emptying/filling, and offers a good trade-off between cpu performance and accuracy and is well-adapted to analysis at the vehicle level.

Using the appropriate modeling for each subsystem permits to define the “right” vehicle model which offer the best balance between fidelity and cpu performance.

Supervisor and control models

Finally, system integration stresses the importance of sub-system interactions and the link with controls. Some capabilities that combine the plant model and the “controls” is a must have. On top of the native Simcenter Amesim feature to set-up vehicle control models (dedicated control library, ECMS), the software offers import/export and co-simulation with Simulink. It is also provided with model export capabilities to be able to apply vehicle physical models in an HiL environment and hence support ECU/VCU validation and pre-calibration. Following the industry trend toward heterogeneous simulation, the Siemens platform delivers full capabilities to deal with Functional Mock-up Units and hence serves actual needs for system simulation.

About the author:

Vincent THOMAS is Senior Product Line Manager for Simcenter Amesim. He has been supporting the internal combustion engine business for more than 20 years, leveraging a long-lasting collaboration with IFP Energies nouvelles to deliver to the market best-in-class system modeling and simulation capabilities to serve industry challenges.

Interested in learning more?

Stay tuned to discover our upcoming release of the Simcenter Amesim 2020.2 version and check ourblogto read on related topics!

FAQs

Can an internal combustion engine run on hydrogen? ›

Both hydrogen internal combustion engines and hydrogen fuel cells can power vehicles using hydrogen, a zero-carbon fuel. Hydrogen engines burn hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, in just the same way gasoline is used in an engine.

Is there a hydrogen combustion engine? ›

Hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles are different from hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (which use electrochemical use of hydrogen rather than combustion). Instead, the hydrogen internal combustion engine is simply a modified version of the traditional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine.

Why don't we use hydrogen combustion engines? ›

Hydrogen has very low density. This results in two problems when used in an internal combustion engine. Firstly, a very large volume is necessary to store enough hydrogen to give a vehicle an adequate driving range. Secondly, the energy den- sity of a hydrogen-air mixture, and hence the power output, is reduced.

How efficient is a hydrogen internal combustion engine? ›

Using hydrogen in internal combustion engines achieves only 20-25% efficiency and low power output compared to fossil-fueled internal combustion engines.

Why don't we use hydrogen as a fuel? ›

So, even though H is good fuel, we cannot economically burn it in small environments like cars or hosehold, So, we donot depend primarly on H as fuel.

Can I convert my car to run on hydrogen? ›

To convert a vehicle to hydrogen, Caigan Vehicle Technologies will remove existing engine and fuel systems, and retrofit a hydrogen storage tank, a fuel cell to convert the hydrogen gas to electricity, a traction battery and an electric drive motor.

Can you convert a diesel engine to run on hydrogen? ›

Hydrogen Conversions

Heavy haulage, buses , site plant, and many large diesel engines can be converted to 100% hydrogen.

Is Cummins making a hydrogen engine? ›

Cummins displayed zero-emission vehicles and technology at ACT Expo. Cummins unveiled a 15L hydrogen engine at ACT Expo in Long Beach, California, May 9. Built on Cummins' new fuel-agnostic platform announced earlier this year, it's expected to go into full production in 2027.

Are hydrogen engines noisy? ›

Hydrogen combustion engines are inefficient, costly to maintain and worse for the environment than fuel cell or battery powertrains. But they're also noisy and fun, so automakers are starting to pitch them as a greener option for die-hard motorheads.

What burns hotter gasoline or hydrogen? ›

Adiabatic flame temperature is the temperature a flame in the combustion process emits, assuming no heat is lost in the process. Hydrogen's adiabatic flame temperature is approximately 500 °F hotter than natural gas.

What is the disadvantage of hydrogen as a fuel in an IC engine? ›

Explanation: The main advantage of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel is that there are no HC and CO emissions. 3. What is the disadvantage of hydrogen as a fuel in an IC engine? Explanation: None.

Is hydrogen better than gasoline? ›

In fact, a fuel cell coupled with an electric motor is two to three times more efficient than an internal combustion engine running on gasoline. Hydrogen can also serve as fuel for internal combustion engines. However, unlike FCEVs, these produce tailpipe emissions and are less efficient.

How many miles per gallon does hydrogen get? ›

Average Expected Energy Use (mpge)

FCEBs have an average fuel economy of approximately 7.9 miles per kilogram of hydrogen, which equates to approximately 7 miles per diesel gallon equivalent (DGE).

How much horsepower can a hydrogen engine make? ›

New Hydrogen Powered Toyota V8 Engine

The power expected to come from this new hydrogen-powered engine will reach up to 455 horsepower and 398 lb-ft of torque.

Do hydrogen powered cars need batteries? ›

Like all-electric vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) use electricity to power an electric motor. In contrast to other electric vehicles, FCEVs produce electricity using a fuel cell powered by hydrogen, rather than drawing electricity from only a battery.

Why hydrogen is not the future? ›

It doesn't exist on our planet in a pure state, so it has to be extracted from compounds from which it doesn't really want to be separated, taking a lot of energy.

What are the two main problems with hydrogen fuel? ›

The two prime dangers from fuel cell and hydrogen-powered vehicles are the danger of electrical shock and the flammability of the fuel. Fuel cells power vehicles by electro-chemically combining hydrogen gas (H2) and oxygen (O2) from the surrounding air into water (H20) and electrical energy.

Will hydrogen cars overtake electric? ›

A new study published in the peer-reviewed journal Nature has confirmed what common sense has made clear for years: Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles aren't likely to catch up to battery-electric vehicles – even for commercial trucks.

Why does Elon Musk not like hydrogen? ›

Judging by his comments this week, he remains unconvinced about hydrogen. “It does not naturally occur on Earth, so you either have to split water with electrolysis or crack hydrocarbons,” he told the Financial Times.

Why are we not developing hydrogen cars? ›

The vast majority of car companies have turned away from hydrogen because of the high density of energy consumed in its production, as well as poor funding and backing from governments, which is stopping the hydrogen revolution from expanding ever more.

How much hydrogen is needed to power a car? ›

Most fuel cell electric cars carry about 5 kg to 6 kg of hydrogen but go twice the distance of a modern internal combustion engine car with equivalent gas in the tank, which works out to a gasoline-per-gallon equivalent between $5 and $6.

Can I make hydrogen at home? ›

It's easy to make hydrogen gas at home or in a lab using common chemicals and everyday materials. Once you have the gas, you can use it for a variety of interesting science projects. Of course, you're not “making” hydrogen, since it's an element. It is produced by chemical reactions that release it.

How can I make a hydrogen fuel cell at home? ›

How to Build a Hydrogen Fuel Cell - YouTube

Can a diesel burn hydrogen? ›

In the case of a diesel engine, the hydrogen can either be aspirated into the engine or injected directly into the cylinder, while the auto-ignition of diesel fuel spray can act as a pilot to ignite the hydrogen [3], [4].

Is Toyota developing a hydrogen car? ›

Toyota has already developed a GR Yaris which has a 1.6-liter ICE and uses hydrogen as its fuel. According to the company, the GR Yaris uses the same powertrain as a hydrogen-powered Corolla Sport. The firm has labeled both of these vehicles as “experimental.”

Who made the first hydrogen motor? ›

1860: Enter the Hippomobile

In 1860, the three-wheel Hippomobile was developed by Belgian inventor Etienne Lenoir. Lenoir created hydrogen by electrolyzing water, and the resulting hydrogen gas powered the one-cylinder, two-stroke engine.

What type of engine is a hydrogen engine? ›

Hydrogen engines are just modified internal combustion engines. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure developed for the applications of one can serve the applications of the other.

How safe are hydrogen cars? ›

Fuel Cell Electric cars are as safe as conventional vehicles. Toyota has spent many years testing hydrogen-powered cars in extreme conditions and temperatures to ensure they can be used safely and reliably, just like any other Toyota.

Are hydrogen cars manual? ›

Are they automatic or manual? Because the hydrogen is simply used to power an electric motor, the vast majority of hydrogen cars are automatic much like their battery electric counterpart.

Are hydrogen engines clean? ›

Like all electric vehicles, FCEVs have a clean electric motor, but instead of needing to charge they can be quickly refilled with hydrogen fuel at stations similar to those that serve today's gasoline cars. Also like plug-in cars, FCEVs produce no harmful tailpipe emissions.

Does hydrogen need a spark to ignite? ›

it has quite a high spontaneous ignition temperature (SIT) of 650oC – it needs a spark to ignite; it has very wide flammability limits (3–70% H2 in air mixture) – it is easier to maintain a flame; it burns to water vapour, thus eliminating CO2 emissions; and.

Can you mix hydrogen with gasoline? ›

As an alternative, using hydrogen mixed with gasoline fuel in conventional combustion engines is a very effective way of improving engine performance and emission control.

What is the octane of hydrogen? ›

Examples
FuelRONAKI or (R+M)/2
xylene118116.5
methane120120
toluene121114
hydrogen> 130
72 more rows

Which is better EV or hydrogen? ›

Hydrogen cars are also much faster to refuel than electric cars, while also offering greater ranges than electric vehicles. For example, Renault's Kangoo Z.E. Hydrogen and Master Z.E. Hydrogen have range extender fuel cells that deliver ranges of over 350 kilometres and charge times of just 5-10 minutes.

Do you have to refill a hydrogen fuel cell? ›

Hydrogen-powered vehicles don't need charging like a Battery-Electric car. You refuel them with hydrogen gas, pumped in the same safe and convenient way you would a conventional petrol or diesel car.

Which is a major drawback to the use of hydrogen power? ›

Hydrogen is a much lighter gas than gasoline which makes it difficult to store and transport. To be able to store it we need to compress it into a liquid and store it at a low temperature. The high amounts of pressure needed to store hydrogen makes it a difficult fuel to transport in large quantities.

Can hydrogen tanks explode? ›

There is no cataclysmic explosion like video game physics would have you believe. The bullet does not cause the hydrogen to ignite, or the tank to explode. Instead, the compressed gas hisses out of the tank and disperses safely into the atmosphere.

Does hydrogen explode? ›

Hydrogen used in the fuel cells is a very flammable gas and can cause fires and explosions if it is not handled properly. Hydrogen fires are invisible and if a worker believes that there is a hydrogen leak, it should always be presumed that a flame is present.

Is hydrogen cheaper than gasoline? ›

Because hydrogen contains less energy per unit volume than all other fuels, transporting, storing, and delivering it to the point of end-use is more expensive on a per gasoline gallon equivalent basis.

How far can a car drive on 1kg of hydrogen? ›

In any of the latest fuel cell cars, 1 kg of hydrogen will let you drive 97 – 100 km.

How much does it cost to fill up a hydrogen car? ›

It could cost a fair amount to fill up a Toyota Mirai; the average cost of hydrogen fuel is $16 per kilogram. Since the Mirai holds an average of 5 kilograms, you would be paying around $80. However, it should also be noted that hydrogen fuel is much more efficient than gasoline.

How efficient is a hydrogen combustion engine? ›

Tank-to-wheel efficiencies range from 75 percent to 85 percent for BEVs to approximately 50 percent for FCEVs and some 40 percent to 45 percent for combustion engines.

How do you fill a hydrogen car? ›

How do you fill up a hydrogen car? - DrivingElectric - YouTube

Can a rotary engine run on hydrogen? ›

A rotary engine is especially well-suited for burning hydrogen since it uses separate chambers for induction and combustion. This overcomes the troublesome backfiring issues often faced when using hydrogen in piston engines.

Where do you fill a hydrogen car? ›

Most hydrogen fueling stations are located at existing gas stations, using dispensers that look very similar, but have a different nozzle and hose. As of October 2019, California has over 40 hydrogen stations, with additional stations in development.

How long do hydrogen fuel cells last? ›

The fuel cell stacks are designed to last the lifetime of the vehicle, about 150,000–200,000 miles. At the end of its lifespan, the fuel cell will be disassembled and the materials recycled, similar to what happens with vehicle components today.

What is the disadvantage of using hydrogen for fuel? ›

Hydrogen is a highly inflammable substance and explosive in nature; it cannot be easily transported from one place to another and it can be generated by the hydrolysis of water but it is a very expensive process.

Can you convert a diesel engine to run on hydrogen? ›

Hydrogen Conversions

Heavy haulage, buses , site plant, and many large diesel engines can be converted to 100% hydrogen.

Is hydrogen cheaper than gasoline? ›

Because hydrogen contains less energy per unit volume than all other fuels, transporting, storing, and delivering it to the point of end-use is more expensive on a per gasoline gallon equivalent basis.

Are hydrogen engines viable? ›

What's the future for hydrogen cars? For truly sustainable mobility, hydrogen is a fuel that cannot be ignored. It is also regarded as a potential alternative for fuelling HGVs, where electric trucks are hampered by battery capacity and having to recharge using the power grid.

What is the advantage of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel? ›

Explanation: The main advantage of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel is that there are no HC and CO emissions.

Why does Elon Musk not like hydrogen? ›

Judging by his comments this week, he remains unconvinced about hydrogen. “It does not naturally occur on Earth, so you either have to split water with electrolysis or crack hydrocarbons,” he told the Financial Times.

Why are we not developing hydrogen cars? ›

The vast majority of car companies have turned away from hydrogen because of the high density of energy consumed in its production, as well as poor funding and backing from governments, which is stopping the hydrogen revolution from expanding ever more.

Can I make hydrogen at home? ›

It's easy to make hydrogen gas at home or in a lab using common chemicals and everyday materials. Once you have the gas, you can use it for a variety of interesting science projects. Of course, you're not “making” hydrogen, since it's an element. It is produced by chemical reactions that release it.

What is the MPG of a hydrogen car? ›

Fueling and Driving Range

Some FCVs can get over 300 miles on one tank of hydrogen fuel — greater than the distance from St. Louis to Chicago — and fuel economy close to 70 MPGe (miles per gasoline gallon equivalent).

How many miles per gallon does hydrogen get? ›

Average Expected Energy Use (mpge)

FCEBs have an average fuel economy of approximately 7.9 miles per kilogram of hydrogen, which equates to approximately 7 miles per diesel gallon equivalent (DGE).

How far can you drive with 1 kg of hydrogen? ›

In any of the latest fuel cell cars, 1 kg of hydrogen will let you drive 97 – 100 km.

How do you refill a hydrogen car? ›

Hydrogen-powered vehicles don't need charging like a Battery-Electric car. You refuel them with hydrogen gas, pumped in the same safe and convenient way you would a conventional petrol or diesel car. Filling up takes the same amount of time too, between 3-5 minutes for a full tank.

Will hydrogen cars overtake electric? ›

A new study published in the peer-reviewed journal Nature has confirmed what common sense has made clear for years: Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles aren't likely to catch up to battery-electric vehicles – even for commercial trucks.

Do hydrogen powered cars need batteries? ›

Like all-electric vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) use electricity to power an electric motor. In contrast to other electric vehicles, FCEVs produce electricity using a fuel cell powered by hydrogen, rather than drawing electricity from only a battery.

What are the 2 main problems with using hydrogen for fuel? ›

The key challenges include: Weight and Volume. The weight and volume of hydrogen storage systems are presently too high, resulting in inadequate vehicle range compared to conventional petroleum fueled vehicles.

What is the disadvantage of hydrogen as a fuel in an engine? ›

Disadvantages of hydrogen fuel

If hydrogen stored as a cryogenic liquid, it would have kept under very high pressure and very low temperature. The fuel tank should thermally super insulated. Difficulty in refueling and a high chance of detonation. Safety issues, highly flammable and the chance of backfiring.

Videos

1. Cummins changes there focus from diesel to a 15 liter Hydrogen Internal combustion engine
(Chris VS Cars)
2. Why Hydrogen Engines Are A Bad Idea
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3. Hydrogen Combustion Engines
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4. The Difference Between Gasoline And Hydrogen Engines
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5. Tiny 22-lb Hydrogen Engine May Replace the Traditional Combustion Engine
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6. Unveiling the Sound of a Hydrogen-Powered Engine
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